Growing Auto Flower Strains Outdoors


The cannabis industry is saturated with a lot of terms that every competent grower must master to ensure a smooth cultivation process. One such popular term is the auto-flowering strain which is usually pitted against its photoperiod counterpart. 

Auto-flower pot seeds as their name suggests are strains that commence their budding phase naturally. A more specific way to put it is that they are strains that do not require a strict lighting regimen like photoperiod strains to initiate their flowering cycle. Read on to find out more about the intricacies of grooming this cultivar outdoors. 

All you need to know about growing Auto-flowering strains outdoors (facts, tips, and preventive measures)

Growing auto flower strains outdoors is cheaper

As mentioned above, grooming photoperiod seeds require a good amount of investment in LED lights and electricity bills which makes it an expensive option. Also, the grower has to be adept at changing light schedules to ensure maximum quality yields. Hence, this option might not be appropriate for a novice grower as it requires a decent level of technical know-how. 

Growing auto-flowering seeds outdoors on the other hand only requires exposure to sunlight. One benefit of grooming this strain is that growers can witness multiple harvests in a calendar year as a result of its rapid growth cycle of 8-12 weeks. As a result of their short and stocky stature, usually not more than 2 feet, this cultivar can be grown discreetly outdoors. They can also thrive in small outdoor spaces as a result of their stature. Little wonder, that cannabis growers deck their balconies and terraces with this cultivar.  

The promise of more yield

According to Herbies, cultivating your auto flower seeds outdoors increases your chances of being rewarded with an abundant yield. Usually, the yield ranges from 25 to 150 grams per plant when grown outdoors. However, you can be rewarded with bigger yields if you pick a strain with such genetic tendencies. Strains like Stardawg, Gorilla Glue, and Paradise Pandora produce significantly higher yields. 

Less room for mistakes

It is no news that the vegetative phase is the formative period of a cannabis plant’s growth cycle. Hence, growers need to exhibit a great amount of caution when dealing with this strain particularly concerning potting. 

Since it has a short vegetative phase of 5 weeks, this cultivar is less tolerant of mistakes. Hence, you should use a well-sized pot that would be used throughout the plant’s growth cycle. Using a smaller pot with the intention that the plant would be repotted when it has grown bigger is disastrous. This is because doing this might cause transplant shock which leads to stunted growth. 

Don’t drown your plant 

Like most plants, this outdoor groomed cultivar requires a sufficient amount of water to thrive. However, growers in a bid to maximize the benefits of consistent watering should not overflood their plants. This is because doing this strips oxygen from the root of your plant making the plant oxygen starved. This deficiency is usually manifested by droopy yellowish leaves. To prevent overwatering growers should ensure that their watering decisions are informed by the weather conditions of their surroundings. For instance, growers residing in dry climes would do a significantly higher amount of watering than a grower residing in areas with regular rainfall. 

Use breathable pots 

Also, a grower must make use of a pot that is made of breathable materials or pots with holes at their bases to ensure efficient drainage. In addition to this, a grower should figure out the pot size that would be appropriate for the strains to be cultivated as the pot size influences watering and plant space.  For instance, medium-sized plants need a 5 to 7 US gal pot that can contain about 19 to 26 liters of water. On the other hand, large ones need an 11 US gal pot that contains 42 liters of water. 

Growers are advised to make use of pots in growing their auto-flowering seeds as they have zero control over the nutrient concentration of the soil. Apart from the level of control that it gives the grower, breathable pots allow the plant to be easily transplanted from one location to another in cases of harsh weather.  

Soil type

For the soil type, an aerated and slightly acidic soil with a PH level of 5.5-6.5 would ensure that your plants grow healthily. Using a soil medium without the optimal PH levels means that your plant would be prevented from absorbing the nutrients necessary for its growth. 

Protect your plant 

It is imperative to mention that if your auto-flowering strains are cultivated in an open space, you should do well to shield the area using barbed wires to prevent trespassers, rodents, and other animals from gaining entry. While the cultivation of cannabis in some countries is legal, people who stay in regions with strict cannabis legislation should ensure that they adopt practices that would prevent them from having a situation with the law. 

It is no news that cannabis loves making its presence known through its aroma or extensive branches which may attract public attention. A solution to this is planting crops that have strong smells to mask the aroma of cannabis plants. The latter problem is usually encountered by people growing in spaces like balconies where the branches of the plant may stretch out. With the low-stress training technique, which involves bending and tying the plants’ stems growers can train their plants to grow closer to the ground. One benefit of this technique is that it increases bud potential. 


In Summary

Cultivating auto-flowering seeds outdoors can be a walk in the park as long as the grower follows basic industry grooming practices. The fact that this cannabis variety has a high resistance to pests and insects, makes it easier to cultivate as you do not have to squander money on pesticides or pest control methods. To simplify the entire process from cultivation to harvesting, it is important to purchase your seeds from a trusted seed bank or dealer who would offer you viable auto-flowering seeds with the best genetics.

IGC-AD1’s Interim Phase 2 Data Show a Reduction in Alzheimer’s Agitation at Week Two

– Study Achieves Secondary End Point: Demonstrates Clinical Reduction, approaching statistical significance, at Week Two, in Agitation in Dementia due to Alzheimer’s –

POTOMAC, Md.–(BUSINESS WIRE)–#AD–IGC Pharma, Inc. (“IGC Pharma,” “IGC,” or the “Company”) (NYSE American: IGC) today announced that interim data from its Phase 2 clinical trial demonstrates a clinically significant reduction, approaching statistical significance, in agitation in Alzheimer’s at week two compared to placebo.

IGC-AD1 targets neuroinflammation and CB1 receptor dysfunction, and the investigational drug contains THC as one of two active pharmaceutical agents. THC is a principal psychoactive cannabinoid found in Cannabis. IGC-AD1 is a first-of-its-kind THC-based-formulation undergoing a formal Phase 2 clinical trial in Alzheimer’s disease (, Identifier: CT05543681).

“We are excited to share that the interim results on the secondary outcome show that IGC-AD1 can provide fast relief with few side effects in reducing agitation in Alzheimer’s dementia compared to placebo. We are especially excited by these results given the limited therapeutic options currently available,” said Ram Mukunda, CEO of IGC Pharma.

“Alzheimer’s affects not only cognition but also mood and behavior that increase in intensity as the disease progresses. Approximately 6.5 million individuals in the U.S. live with Alzheimer’s and a majority experience a medical syndrome called agitation in Alzheimer’s dementia. There are various symptoms associated with this medical syndrome or condition such as screaming, pacing, biting, disrobing, excessive motor movements, physical aggression, and verbal aggression, among others. This medical condition makes it very difficult for caregivers to manage their loved one and is associated with increased hospitalization and accelerated cognitive decline.

“The interim data indicate early signs of potential clinical benefit with IGC-AD1 with infrequent treatment limiting side effects. We are encouraged by this data and will continue to work with the regulatory authorities on advancing IGC-AD1 through to commercialization,” added Mukunda.

The secondary outcome, as measured by the change in agitation versus placebo using a standard measurement scale, the Cohen Mansfield Agitation Inventory (“CMAI”) at baseline and week 2, exhibited an Effect Size (“ES”) of 0.79 (p=0.071) indicating a large magnitude of difference between the active and placebo groups. For context, a study published in 2003 concluded that an effect size over 0.5 corresponds to a change that is noticeable to a careful observer, highlighting the notable impact of IGC-AD1. Further, in May 2023, the FDA approved Brexpiprazole, an atypical antipsychotic, with a boxed warning. This approval followed a significantly larger 12-week Phase 3 trial, which showed a Cohen’s d effect size of 0.35 whereas IGC-AD1 showed an effect size of 0.79 in two weeks, emphasizing, subject to further trials, the potential of IGC-AD1 as a treatment option.

The ongoing 146-patient clinical trial is a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study designed to assess safety and efficacy of IGC-AD1 in treating agitation in dementia due to Alzheimer’s. To date over 1,000 oral doses have been administered, with no dose-limiting adverse events observed, highlighting the safety profile of IGC-AD1.

About IGC Pharma Inc. (IGC):

IGC Pharma Inc. (“IGC”) is focused on Alzheimer’s disease, developing innovative solutions to address this devastating illness. The Company’s mission is to transform the landscape of Alzheimer’s treatment with a robust pipeline of five promising drug candidates. IGC-AD1 and LMP target the hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease, including neuroinflammation, Aβ plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles. IGC-AD1 is currently undergoing a Phase 2 clinical trial for agitation in dementia associated with Alzheimer’s (, CT05543681). TGR-63 disrupts the progression of Alzheimer’s by targeting Aβ plaques. IGC-M3, currently in preclinical development, aims to inhibit the aggregation of Aβ plaques, potentially impacting early-stage Alzheimer’s. IGC-1C, also in preclinical stages, targets tau protein and neurofibrillary tangles, representing a forward-thinking approach to Alzheimer’s therapy. In addition to its drug development pipeline, IGC Pharma seeks to leverage artificial intelligence (“AI”) for Alzheimer’s research. Their AI projects encompass various areas, including clinical trial optimization and early detection of Alzheimer’s.

Forward-Looking Statements:

This press release contains forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are based largely on IGC Pharma’s expectations and are subject to several risks and uncertainties, certain of which are beyond IGC Pharma’s control. Actual results could differ materially from these forward-looking statements as a result of, among other factors, the Company’s failure or inability to commercialize one or more of the Company’s products or technologies, including the products or formulations described in this release, or failure to obtain regulatory approval for the products or formulations, where required, or government regulations affecting AI or the AI algorithms not working as intended or producing accurate predictions; general economic conditions that are less favorable than expected; the FDA’s general position regarding cannabis- and hemp-based products; and other factors, many of which are discussed in IGC Pharma’s U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) filings. IGC Pharma incorporates by reference the human trial disclosures and Risk Factors identified in its Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on July 7, 2023, and Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed with the SEC on February 14, 2024, as if fully incorporated and restated herein. Considering these risks and uncertainties, there can be no assurance that the forward-looking information contained in this release will occur.


IMS Investor Relations

Rosalyn Christian / Walter Frank
(203) 972-9200


Janet Vasquez
(212) 645-5498

Dabbing vs Smoking vs Vaping: The Best Way to Consume Cannabis

For the most part of their lives, people have chosen to smoke weed in a smoking pipe, water bong, or rolling it up in a joint. People have carried over this method from generations to generations, but as time is ever-changing, so have been the method of consuming weed. Smokers have been buying water pipes online in the cute bong shop.

As cannabis usage is becoming more and more mainstreamed, smokers are gradually being introduced to new methods of smoking weed. Two of the most popular ways are: vaping and dabbing.

To the veterans, adopting these methods might seem unnecessary, but the younger generation is being attracted by it a lot. Let’s look over these two new methods of smoking as vaping and dabbing might provide advantages that may not be present in traditional methods of smoking cannabis.


The entire process of dabbing needs a piece of equipment called a dab rig. It is like your average bong in different shapes and sizes, used to heat water and cannabis. The heated cannabis and water create a vapor which the users inhale. You can search online for reviews on the best dab rigs and buy the one that suits your style. 

One of the main things that differentiate dabs from vaporizers and joints is that a dab rig is exclusively used with cannabis extracts. Extracts are in the form of waxes because they vaporize quickly when compared to dry herbs, which are better smoked in a joint.

Another main difference between dabbing and other methods of consuming cannabis is the kick it gives. Dabbing creates what smokers call a “gargantuan high,” which the consumers get with just one hit.

Head over to Grasscity for more information about what are dabs, the ultimate guide, and its safety concerns.


The main difference between vaping and smoking cannabis is the substance that is being inhaled – vapor vs smoke. A vaporizer is a battery powered device that uses heat to produce a vapor of cannabis.

This vapor is produced as a result of combustion, and the consumers get a potent high by inhaling the pure vapor. The only downside is that the high lingers for only a moment and slowly fades away.

Another reason vaping is becoming popular is the vaporizers’ lack of smell. They come in a lot of shapes and sizes so that its consumers can be discrete while using them.

Vaporization is also different because it accommodates every type of cannabis. From dry herbs to shatter to wax, you can vape anything if you have the right vaporizer that specializes in their use.

The Bottom Line

To sum it up, vaping and dabbing have clear advantages over traditional ways of using dry herbs and waxes. The kick and high that you can get from these two is an enticing experience. Most people who want to try dabbing or vaping are just bored with rolling up joints.

But, dabbing or vaping cannabis isn’t for everyone the same way hard alcohol isn’t for anyone. If you think you can handle dabs and vapes, check and you will be entering into a whole new world of joy you didn’t know existed.

CEL-SCI Announces Bought Deal Offering


VIENNA, Va.–(BUSINESS WIRE)–CEL-SCI Corporation (NYSE American: CVM), a Phase 3 cancer immunotherapy company, today announced that it has entered into an underwriting agreement with Kingswood Capital Markets, division of Benchmark Investments, Inc. and Aegis Capital Corp. under which the underwriters have agreed to purchase on a firm commitment basis a minimum of 1,000,000 shares of common stock of the Company, at a price to the public of $14.65 per share (the “Public Price”), representing a 5% discount to the Company’s December 8, 2020 closing share price. The closing of the offering is expected to occur on or about December 11, 2020, subject to customary closing conditions.

Kingswood Capital Markets, division of Benchmark Investments, Inc. and Aegis Capital Corp. are acting as the joint book-running managers for the offering.

The Company also has granted to the underwriters a 30-day option to purchase up to 15% of the offering at the Public Price. The use of proceeds will be to fund the continued development of Multikine* and LEAPS, the expansion of the Company’s manufacturing facility and for other general corporate purposes.

The shares of common stock described above are being offered by CEL-SCI pursuant to a “shelf” registration statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-226558) filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the accompanying prospectus contained therein. The offering of the shares of common stock is being made only by means of a prospectus, including a prospectus supplement, forming a part of the effective registration statement. A preliminary prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus relating to and describing the terms of the offering has been filed with the SEC. Copies of the preliminary prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus relating to this offering may be obtained on the SEC’s website at or by contacting Kingswood Capital Markets, Attention: Syndicate Desk, 17 Battery Place, Suite 625, New York, NY 10004, by email at, or by telephone at (212) 404-7002.

This press release shall not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any of the securities described herein, nor shall there be any sale of these securities in any state or jurisdiction in which such offer, solicitation or sale would be unlawful prior to registration or qualification under the securities laws of any such state or jurisdiction.

About CEL-SCI Corporation

CEL-SCI is a clinical-stage biotechnology company focused on finding the best way to activate the immune system to fight cancer and infectious diseases. The Company’s lead investigational therapy Multikine is currently in a pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial involving head and neck cancer, for which the Company has received Orphan Drug Status from the FDA. The Company has operations in Vienna, Virginia, and near Baltimore, Maryland.

Forward-Looking Statements

This press release contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. When used in this press release, the words “intends,” “believes,” “anticipated,” “plans” and “expects,” and similar expressions, are intended to identify forward-looking statements. Such statements are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected, including the risk that the offering is subject to market and other conditions and there can be no assurance as to whether or when the offering may be completed or as to the actual size or terms of the offering. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, an inability to duplicate the clinical results demonstrated in clinical studies, timely development of any potential products that can be shown to be safe and effective, receiving necessary regulatory approvals, difficulties in manufacturing any of the Company’s potential products, inability to raise the necessary capital and the risk factors set forth from time to time in CEL-SCI’s filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, including but not limited to its amended report on Form 10-K/A for the year ended September 30, 2019. The Company undertakes no obligation to publicly release the result of any revision to these forward-looking statements which may be made to reflect the events or circumstances after the date hereof or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.

* Multikine (Leukocyte Interleukin, Injection) is the trademark that CEL-SCI has registered for this investigational therapy, and this proprietary name is subject to FDA review in connection with the Company’s future anticipated regulatory submission for approval. Multikine has not been licensed or approved for sale, barter or exchange by the FDA or any other regulatory agency. Similarly, its safety or efficacy has not been established for any use. Moreover, no definitive conclusions can be drawn from the early-phase, clinical-trials data involving the investigational therapy Multikine. Further research is required, and early-phase clinical trial results must be confirmed in the Phase 3 clinical trial of this investigational therapy that is in progress.


Gavin de Windt

CEL-SCI Corporation
(703) 506-9460

State Medical Marijuana Laws (Updated)


MEDICAL-USE UPDATE: As of May 18, 2021, 36 states and four territories allow for the medical use of cannabis products.
In November 2020, voters in Mississippi passed a ballot initiative to allow for medical use, but it was overturned by the state supreme court on May 14, 2021, and is not counted in the state totals on this page. Please see Table 1 for more information. 

NONMEDICAL/ADULT-USE UPDATE: As of June 22, 2021, 18 states, two territories and the District of Columbia have enacted legislation to regulate cannabis for nonmedical use.

  • Voters in Arizona, Montana, New Jersey and South Dakota approved measures to regulate cannabis for nonmedical use.
  • On Feb. 8, 2021, South Dakota Circuit Judge Christina Klinger ruled that the measure was unconstitutional. The decision is being appealed as of March 31, 2021.
  • New Jersey’s governor signed enacting legislation on March 1, 2021.
  • New York’s legislature and governor enacted AB 1248/SB 854 on March 31, 2021.
  • The Virginia General Assembly passed legislation on Feb. 27 and approved the governor’s amendments on April 7, 2021.
  • The New Mexico legislature passed legislation on March 31 and the governor signed it on April 12, 2021.
  • The Connecticut General Assembly passed SB 1201 on June 17 and the governor signed it on June 22, 2021.
  • These actions bring the number of states with nonmedical (adult-use) regulated cannabis to 18, plus two territories and the District of Columbia (D.C. does not regulate nonmedical sales).
  • This total does NOT include South Dakota’s court-over-turned measure, which is pending appeal.  

Please see Table 1 below for more information.

A total of 36 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands have approved comprehensive, publicly available medical marijuana/cannabis programs.
Please see Table 1 below for more information.

Approved measures in 11 states allow the use of “low THC, high cannabidiol (CBD)” products for medical reasons in limited situations or as a legal defense. (See Table 2 below for more information). Low-THC programs are not counted as comprehensive medical cannabis programs. NCSL uses criteria similar to other organizations tracking this issue to determine if a program is “comprehensive”:

  1. Protection from criminal penalties for using cannabis for a medical purpose.
  2. Access to cannabis through home cultivation, dispensaries or some other system that is likely to be implemented.
  3. It allows a variety of strains or products, including those with more than “low THC.”
  4. It allows either smoking or vaporization of some kind of cannabis products, plant material or extract.
  5. Is not a limited trial program. (Nebraska has a trial program that is not open to the public.)


April 14, 2021: South Dakota’s overturned nonmedical (adult-use) ballot measure is currently under appeal as of March 11, 2021.

* = 2020 measures in Mississippi for medical use and South Dakota for nonmedical use were overturned in 2021.
Please see Table 1 below for more information.

Medical Uses of Cannabis

In response to California’s Prop 215, the Institute of Medicine issued a report that examined potential therapeutic uses for cannabis. The report found that: “Scientific data indicate the potential therapeutic value of cannabinoid drugs, primarily THC, for pain relief, control of nausea and vomiting, and appetite stimulation; smoked marijuana, however, is a crude THC delivery system that also delivers harmful substances. The psychological effects of cannabinoids, such as anxiety reduction, sedation, and euphoria can influence their potential therapeutic value. Those effects are potentially undesirable for certain patients and situations and beneficial for others. In addition, psychological effects can complicate the interpretation of other aspects of the drug’s effect.”

Further studies have found that marijuana is effective in relieving some of the symptoms of HIV/AIDS, cancer, glaucoma, and multiple sclerosis.1  

In early 2017, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine released a report based on the review of over 10,000 scientific abstracts from cannabis health research. They also made 100 conclusions related to health and suggest ways to improve cannabis research.

State vs Federal Perspective

At the federal level, cannabis remains classified as a Schedule I substance under the Controlled Substances Act, where Schedule I substances are considered to have a high potential for dependency and no accepted medical use, making distribution of cannabis a federal offense. In October of 2009, the Obama Administration sent a memo to federal prosecutors encouraging them not to prosecute people who distribute cannabis for medical purposes in accordance with state law.

In late August 2013, the U.S. Department of Justice announced an update to their marijuana enforcement policy. The statement read that while cannabis remains illegal federally, the USDOJ expects states like Colorado and Washington to create “strong, state-based enforcement efforts…. and will defer the right to challenge their legalization laws at this time.” The department also reserves the right to challenge the states at any time they feel it’s necessary.

More recently, in January 2018, former Attorney General Sessions issued a Marijuana Enforcement Memorandum that rescinded the Cole Memorandum, and allows federal prosecutors to decide how to prioritize enforcement of federal cannabis laws. Specifically, the Sessions memorandum directs U.S. Attorneys to “weigh all relevant considerations, including federal law enforcement priorities set by the Attorney General, the seriousness of the crime, the deterrent effect of criminal prosecution, and the cumulative impact of particular crimes on the community.” Text of the memo can be found here:

NCSL’s policy on state cannabis laws can be found under Additional Resources below.

Arizona and the District of Columbia voters passed initiatives to allow for medical use, only to have them overturned. In 1998, voters in the District of Columbia passed Initiative 59. However, Congress blocked the initiative from becoming law. In 2009, Congress reversed its previous decision, allowing the initiative to become law. The D.C. Council then put Initiative 59 on hold temporarily and unanimously approved modifications to the law.

Before passing Proposition 203 in 2010, Arizona voters originally passed a ballot initiative in 1996. However, the initiative stated that doctors would be allowed to write a “prescription” for cannabis. Since cannabis is a Schedule I substance, federal law prohibits its prescription, making the initiative invalid. Medical cannabis “prescriptions” are more often called “recommendations” or “referrals” because of the federal prescription prohibition.

States with medical cannabis laws generally have some form of patient registry, which may provide some protection against arrest for possession up to a certain amount of products for personal medicinal use.

Some of the most common policy questions regarding medical cannabis include how to regulate its recommendation, dispensing, and registration of approved patients. Some small cannabis growers or are often called “caregivers” and may grow a certain number of plants per patient. This issue may also be regulated on a local level, in addition to any state regulation.

Table 1. State Medical Marijuana/Cannabis Program Laws
(click state name to jump to program information)
Statutory Language (yearPatient Registry or ID cardsAllows DispensariesSpecifies ConditionsRecognizes Patients from other statesState Allows for Retail Sales/Nonmedical (Adult) Use
AlabamaSB46 (2021)YesYesYesNo
AlaskaMeasure 8 (1998) SB 94 (1999) Statute Title 17, Chapter 37YesYesYesNo, but adults 21 and older may purchase at nonmedical retail dispensaries.Ballot Measure 2 (2014) Marijuana Regulations
ArizonaProposition 203 (2010)YesYesYesYes, for AZ-approved conditions, but not for dispensary purchases.Proposition 207 (2020)
ArkansasIssue 6 (2016)YesYesYesYes
CaliforniaProposition 215 (1996)  SB 420 (2003)YesYes (cooperatives and collectives)NoNoProposition 64 (2016)
Colorado   Medical program info   -Nonmedical use infoAmendment 20 (2000)YesYesYesNoAmendment 64 (2012) Task Force Implementation Recommendations (2013)
Analysis of CO Amendment 64 (2013)
Colorado Marijuana Sales and Tax Reports 2014 “Edibles” regulation measure FAQ about CO cannabis laws by the Denver Post. 
ConnecticutHB 5389 (2012)
Nonmedical use legislation SB 1201 (2021)
YesYesYesSB 1201 (2021)
DelawareSB 17 (2011)YesYesYes Yes, for DE-approved conditions.
District of ColumbiaInitiative 59 (1998)  L18-0210 (2010)YesYesYesInitiative 71 (2014)
FloridaAmendment 2 (2016)YesYesYesNo
GuamProposal 14A Approved in Nov. 2014, fully operational.- home growing currently allowed until dispensaries open Draft rules released in July 2015   Nonmedical use- 2019 Bill No. 32-35 signed by governor in April, 2019YesYesYesNoYes. Nonmedical use- 2019 Bill No. 32-35 signed by governor in April, 2019
HawaiiSB 862 (2000)YesYesYesNo
IllinoisHB 1 (2013) Eff. 1/1/2014 Rules
Nonmedical use legalization SB 0007 bill passed legislature May, 2019, signed by governor June 25, 2019, Effective Jan. 1, 2020.
YesYesYesNoMeasure approved by legislature in May, 2019, signed by governor June 25, 2019. Effective Jan. 1, 2020.
LouisianaSB 271 (2017) (not yet in effect)NoYesYesNo
MaineQuestion 2 (1999)  LD 611 (2002)   Question 5 (2009)   LD 1811 (2010) LD 1296 (2011)YesYesYesYes, but not for dispensary purchases. Adults 21 and older may purchase from nonmedical retail dispensaries.Question 1 (2016) page 4 Chapter 409 (2018)
MarylandHB 702 (2003) SB 308 (2011) HB 180/SB 580 (2013)  HB 1101- Chapter 403 (2013) SB 923 (signed 4/14/14)
HB 881- similar to SB 923
MassachusettsQuestion 3 (2012)
Regulations (2013)
YesYesYesNoQuestion 4 (2016)
MichiganProposal 1 (2008)YesYesYesYes, for legal protection of possession, but not for dispensary purchases. Adults 21 and older may purchase from nonmedical retail dispensaries.Proposal 18-1 (2018)
MinnesotaSF 2471, Chapter 311 (2014)YesYes, limited, liquid extract products onlyYesNo
*overturned May 14, 2021
Initiative 65 (2020)
News: Mississippi Supreme Court Overturns Medical Marijuana Amendment 65
YesYesYesYet to be determined
MissouriAmendment 2 (2018)YesYesYesYes
MontanaInitiative 148 (2004) SB 423 (2011)
Initiative 182 (2016)


Yes  YesYes   YesNoInitiative 190 (2020)
NevadaQuestion 9 (2000) NRS 453A NAC 453AYesYesYesYes, if the other state’s program are “substantially similar.” Patients must fill out Nevada paperwork. Adults 21 and older may purchase at nonmedical retail dispensaries.Question 2 (2016) page 25
New HampshireHB 573 (2013)
HB 89 (2021)
YesYesYesYes, with a note from their home state, but they cannot purchase through dispensaries.
New JerseySB 119 (2009)
Program information
YesYesYesNoPublic Question 1 passed by voters in 2020 to allow legislature to enact legislation
NJ AB 21 passed legislature, signed by governor March 1, 2021
New MexicoSB 523 (2007)
Medical Cannabis Program
YesYesYesNoHB 2 Cannabis regulation act passed legislature March 31, 2021 and signed by governor on 4/12/21.

New York

A6357 (2014) Signed by governor 7/5/14YesYes- Ingested doses may not contain more than 10 mg of THC, product may not be combusted (smoked).YesNoAB 1248A/SB 854 passed legislature, signed by governor on March 31, 2021.
North DakotaMeasure 5 (2016) NDCC 19-24.1 NDAC 33-44YesYesYesNo
Northern Mariana IslandsDoes not have a medical program.Yes, HB 20-178 HD 4- Public Law 20-66 (2018)
OhioHB 523 (2016) Approved by legislature, signed by governor 6/8/16YesYesYesYes- If approved by the Board of Pharmacy on a state-by-state basis.
OklahomaSQ 788 Approved by voters on 6/26/18YesYesYes, but list was not included in the initial ballot measure.Yes but must apply as a temporary patient
OregonOregon Medical Marijuana Act (1998) SB 161 (2007)YesYesYesNo, but adults over 21 may purchase at adult retail dispensaries.Measure 91 (2014)
PennsylvaniaSB 3 (2016) Signed by governor 4/17/16YesYesYesNo
Puerto RicoPublic Health Department Regulation 155 (2016) in SpanishYesYes- Cannot be smokedYesYes
Rhode IslandS 710 B (2006)- Legislature overturned governor’s veto.
SB 791 (2007)  SB 185 (2009)
South Dakota

*Nonmedical measure ruled unconstitutional as of Feb. 9, 2021.

Initiated Measure 26 (2020)

News: Court rules measure unconstitutional Feb. 8, 2021

News: AG will not appeal court decision Feb. 12, 2021

News: Legislature considering legislation Feb. 9, 2021

YesYesYesYet to be determinedAmendment A (2020)
US Virgin IslandsSB 135 (2017) signed by governor 1/19/19
UtahProp 2 (2018) replaced by HB 3001 HB 3001 2018– Third Special SessionYesYesYesYes
VermontSB 76 (2004) SB 7 (2007) SB 17 (2011) H.511 (2018)YesYesYesNo, but adults 21 years old and older may purchase from the nonmedical market.H.511 approved by legislature, signed by governor 1/22/18.
Effective July 1, 2018.
S.54 (2020) establishes sales regulations. Effective Oct. 7, 2020.
Governor’s letter re: S. 54, going into effect without his signature.    Additional info:
Governor’s Marijuana Advisory Commission Final Report– December, 2018
VirginiaH 1460 (2020)

S 646 (2020)

H 1617 (2020)

S 976 (2020)

Legislative Timeline (2020)

Board of Pharmacy overview
Board of Pharmacy FAQ

YesYesNoNo, but allows for temporary residents to apply with approval from the Board of Pharmacy.Yes, legislature approved HB2312 and SB1406Signed by governor 4/7/21.
WashingtonInitiative 692(1998) SB 5798 (2010) SB 5073 (2011)Registry is voluntary.Yes, approved as of Nov. 2012, stores opened in July, 2014.YesNo, but adults 21 and older may purchase at nonmedical retail dispensaries.Initiative 502 (2012)
WAC Marijuana rules: Chapter 314-55 WAC
FAQ about WA cannabis laws by the Seattle Times.
West VirginiaSB 386 (2017)YesYes. No whole flower/cannot be smoked but can be vaporized.YesNo, but may allow their patients who are terminally ill to buy in other states. WV does not recognize other state cards.

*The links and resources are provided for information purposes only. NCSL does not endorse the views expressed in any of the articles linked from this page.


Table 2. Limited Access Cannabis Product Laws (low THC/high CBD- cannabidiol)
StateProgram Name and Statutory Language (year)Patient Registry or ID cardsDispensaries or Source of Product(s)Specifies ConditionsRecognizes Patients from other statesDefinition of Products AllowedAllows for Legal DefenseAllowed for Minors

(SB46 of 2021 created a new medical cannabis law enacted on May 17, 2021 and is listed in Table 1.)  

SB 174 “Carly’s Law” (Act 2014-277) Allows University of Alabama Birmingham to conduct effectiveness research using low-THC products for treating seizure disorders for up to 5 years.  HB 61 (2016) Leni’s Law allows more physicians to refer patients to use CBD for more conditions.NoProvides legal defense for possession and/or use of CBD oil.  Does not create an in-state production method.Yes, debilitating epileptic conditions, life-threatening seizures, wasting syndrome, chronic pain, nausea, muscle spasms, any other sever condition resistant to conventional medicine.NoExtracts that are low THC= below 3% THCYesYes
(NEW comprehensive program approved in 2016, included in table above)
Compassionate Medical Cannabis Act of 2014 CS for SB 1030 (2014) Patient treatment information and outcomes will be collected and used for intractable childhood epilepsy researchYesYes, 5 registered nurseries across the state by region, which have been in business at least 30 years in Florida.Yes, cancer, medical condition or seizure disorders that chronically produces symptoms that can be alleviated by low-THC productsNoCannabis with low THC= below .8% THC and above 10% CBD by weightYes, with approval from 2 doctors
GeorgiaHB 1 (2015) (signed by governor 4/16/15)YesLaw allows University System of Georgia to develop a lot THC oil clinical research program that meets FDA trial compliance.Yes, end stage cancer, ALS, MS, seizure disorders, Crohn’s, mitochondrial disease, Parkinson’s, Sickle Cell diseaseNoCannabis oils with low THC= below 5% THC and at least an equal amount of CDB.YesYes
 Idaho- VETOED BY GOVERNORSB 1146 (VETOED by governor 4/16/15)NoDoesn’t define.The possessor has, or is a parent or guardian of a person that has, cancer, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, seizure disorders, multiple sclerosis, Crohn’s disease, mitochondrial disease, fibromyalgia, Parkinson’s disease or sickle cell disease;NoIs composed of no more than three-tenths percent (0.3%)  tetrahydrocannabidiol by weight;  is composed of at least fifteen (15) times more cannabidiol than tetrahydrocannabidiol by weight; and contains no other psychoactive substance.YesYes
IndianaHB 1148 (2017)YesDoesn’t define.Treatment resistant epilepsy.NoAt least 5 percent CBD by weight. No more than .3 percent THC by weight.YesYes
IowaSF 2360, Medical Cannabidiol Act of 2014 (Effective 7/1/14 and repealed in 2017 and replaced)
HF 524 of 2017 now Section 124E
YesYesYesYes, for possession or use only, not for purchasing CBD in Iowa.Less than 3 percent THCYesYes
KentuckySB 124 (2014) Clara Madeline Gilliam Act Exempt cannabidiol from the definition of marijuana and allows it to be administered by a public university or school of medicine in Kentucky for clinical trial or expanded access program approved by the FDA.NoUniversities in Kentucky with medical schools that are able to get a research trial. Doesn’t allow for in-state production of CBD product.Intractable seizure disordersNoNo, only “cannabidiol”.
(Overturned Amendment 65 from 2020 included in table above.)
HB 1231 “Harper Grace’s Law” 2014All provided through National Center for Natural Products Research at the Univ. of Mississippi and dispensed by the Dept. of Pharmacy Services at the Univ. of Mississippi Medical CenterYes, debilitating epileptic condition or related illnessNo“CBD oil” – processed cannabis plant extract, oil or resin that contains more than 15% cannabidiol, or a dilution of the resin that contains at least 50 milligrams of cannabidiol (CBD) per milliliter, but not more than one-half of one percent (0.5%) of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)Yes, if an authorized patient or guardianYes
Missouri  (NEW comprehensive program approved in 2018, included in table above)HB 2238 (2014)YesYes, creates cannabidiol oil care centers and cultivation and production facilities/laboratories.Yes, intractable epilepsy that has not responded to three or more other treatment options.No“Hemp extracts” equal or less than .3% THC and at least 5% CBD by weight.YesYes
North CarolinaHB 1220 (2014) Epilepsy Alternative Treatment Act- Pilot Study HB 766 (2015) Removes Pilot Study designationYesUniversity research studies with a hemp extract registration card from the state DHHS or obtained from another jurisdiction that allows removal of the products from the state.Yes, intractable epilepsyNo“Hemp extracts” with less than nine-tenths of one percent (0.9%) tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) by weight. Is composed of at least five percent (5%) cannabidiol by weight.
Contains no other psychoactive substance.
Oklahoma (NEW comprehensive medical program approved in 2018 and listed above) HB 2154 (2015)YesNo in-state production allowed, so products would have to be brought in. Any formal distribution system would require federal approval.People under 18 (minors) Minors with Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome, Dravet Syndrome, or other severe epilepsy that is not adequately treated by traditional medical therapiesNoA preparation of cannabis with no more than .3% THC in liquid form.YesYes, only allowed for minors
South Carolina SB 1035 (2014) Medical Cannabis Therapeutic Treatment Act- Julian’s LawYesMust use CBD product from an approved source; and (2)    approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration to be used for treatment of a condition specified in an investigational new drug application. -The principal investigator and any subinvestigator may receive cannabidiol directly from an approved source or authorized distributor for an approved source for use in the expanded access clinical trials. Some have interpreted the law to allow patients and caregivers to produce their own products.Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome, Dravet Syndrome, also known as severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy, or any other form of refractory epilepsy that is not adequately treated by traditional medical therapies.NoCannabidiol or derivative of marijuana that contains 0.9% THC and over 15% CBD, or least 98 percent cannabidiol (CBD) and not more than 0.90% tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) by volume that has been extracted from marijuana or synthesized in a laboratoryYesYes
TennesseeSB 2531 (2014)
Creates a four-year study of high CBD/low THC cannabis at Tenn. Tech Univ. 


Researchers need to track patient information and outcomesOnly products produced by Tennessee Tech University.
Patients may possess low THC oils only if they are purchased “legally in the United States and outside of Tennessee,” from an assumed medical cannabis state, however most states do not allow products to leave the state.
Yes, intractable seizure conditions.








“Cannabis oil” with less than .9% THC as part of a clinical research study.



HB 197 (2015)NoAllows for legal defense for having the product as long as it was obtained legally in the US or other medical cannabis state.Yes, intractable seizure conditions.NoSame as above.YesYes
TexasSB 339 (2015)
Texas Compassionate Use ActHB 3703 (2019)
YesYes, licensed by the Department of Public Safety.Yes, intractable epilepsy, incurable neurodegenerative disease, terminal cancer, multiple sclerosis, spasticity, ALS, autism.No“Low-THC Cannabis” with not more than 0.5 percent by weight of tetrahydrocannabinols.YesYes
Utah (NEW comprehensive program approved in 2018, included in table above)HB 105 (2014) Hemp Extract Registration ActYesNot completely clear, however it may allow higher education institutions to grow or cultivate industrial hemp.Yes, intractable epilepsy that hasn’t responded to three or more treatment options suggested by a neurologist.No“Hemp extracts” with less than .3% THC by weight and at least 15% CBD by weight and contains no other psychoactive substancesYesYes
(NEW comprehensive medical program approved in 2020 and listed above)
HB 1445– no longer in effectNoNo in-state means of acquiring cannabis products.Intractable epilepsyNoCannabis oils with at least 15% CBD or THC-A and no more than 5% THC.YesYes
WisconsinAB 726 (2013 Act 267)NoPhysicians and pharmacies with an investigational drug permit by the FDA could dispense cannabidiol. Qualified patients would also be allowed to access CBD from an out-of-state medical cannabis dispensary that allows for out-of-state patients to use their dispensaries as well as remove the products from the state. No in-state production/manufacturing mechanism provided.Seizure disordersException to the definition of prohibited THC by state law, allows for possession of “cannabidiol in a form without a psychoactive effect.”  THC or CBD levels are not defined.NoYes
WyomingHB 32 (2015)
Supervised medical use of hemp extracts. Effective 7/1/2015
YesNo in-state production or purchase method defined.Intractable epilepsy or seizure disordersNo“Hemp extracts” with less than 0.3% THC and at least 5% CBD by weight.YesYes

*The links and resources are provided for information purposes only. Ganjly does not endorse the views expressed in any of the articles linked to this page.

Reprinted from Source: National Conference of State Legislatures

Additional Resources

Puffco Pro 2 Review: Better than its Wax Vape Predecessor

Puffco Pro 2 Vaporizer Review @KingPenVapes

The new Puffco Pro 2 Vaporizer is smaller, sleeker, and made of better quality materials compared to its predecessor.

The atomizer in the Puff Pro 2 Vaporizer has been updated. The Puffco Pro 2 Vaporizer is slimmer and has a modern look, with the original bulkiness removed.

The Puffco Pro 2 Vaporizer has an expensive feel and looks fancy and modern. It has a sexy look to it with a luxurious vibe.

Puffco Pro 2 Vaporizer Review and Its New Features

One of the most noticeable features of Puffco Pro 2 Vaporizer is it’s above the standard ceramic-lined chamber.

It is big! This bigger chamber can hold up to .3g of cannabis concentrate. The design of this chamber is put to it’s the best use when 2/3 full or .2g of weed.

Remember when packing cannabis wax in the chamber, to make sure that you leave an air pathway in the chamber. Meaning don’t pack it too tight!

Without sufficient air flow in the chamber, you will get an inadequate draw.

You can also use your dab tool(included with the vaporizer) to create a small pathway for the air so you can experience a good draw when vaping.

Puffco Pro 2 Vaporizer Review and The New Benefits of This Wax Vape Pen

One of most excellent benefits of this new pen is you can get 50-70 puffs when the chamber is full.

The quality of the vapor the pen produces is consistent and provides a superior smoke. Overall we love the functionality of this wax vape.

Puffco Pro 2 Vaporizer Review and It’s Temperature-Controlled Battery

The battery in this pen is tiny. Three heat settings of Low(Green), Medium(blue), and high(Red) have been designed in this wax vape.

The battery requires about 3 hours to be fully charged so we love that it lasts long. Tap the power button four times to go through the different heat settings.

The Puffco Pro 2 Vaporizer is above average. The wax vape is designed to work best on full loads of weed wax.

This is not the right type pen for using small amounts of wax. But overall this is a very decent vaporizer.

To buy one for yourself, head on over to

3 Things Parents Need to Know About CBD Before Giving It to Their Children


CBD, short of cannabidiol, is a widely popular substance being used to treat various medical conditions. Despite its growing popularity in the medical region, there are a lot of concerns over its use, mainly because it is extracted from the Hemp or the marijuana plant.

As it is extracted from cannabis, most people think that it is just another drug and stay away from it. In this article, I am going to provide you with facts rather than opinions so that parents know everything there is to know about CBD before giving it to their children.

What is CBD Oil?

First of all, you are going to need to understand CBD, how it is consumed and what the benefits are. As mentioned before, CBD can be extracted from Hemp or marijuana, but each of them contains their specific properties. The difference between Hemp and marijuana is found in the amount of resin both plants contain. Naturally, the more the plant resin, the more CBD is found inside it.

Generally, Hemp is a low-resin plant, and marijuana is a resin-rich plant. But, CBD isn’t the only thing that is found within the resin as you also get THC from it. For those who don’t know, the difference between CBD and THC is that the former has no intoxicating properties, but the later is known for the high that smoking marijuana gives.

What Are the Benefits of CBD For Children?

Parents laud CBD because it treats some of the most prevalent conditions in children like anxiety, hyperactivity, and autism. While the research does look very promising, CBD is still being tested to determine how safe and effective it is.

However, a group of Israeli researchers has been working on CBD for quite some time and exploring the use of CBD to reduce some of the common medical conditions in children like autism, etc. According to the study, a test was conducted on a group of 60 children. All of them showed great signs of improvement when it came to behavioral outbreaks, anxiety, autism, and stress levels.

There has also been a great boom in research around CBD and its product in the US as FDA has approved Epidiolex, the first CBD-based drug. It seems as if with more research and time, CBD will be used to make more and more drugs and treat multiple medical conditions around the world.

What Are the Safety Concerns About CBD?

While there are endless benefits of using CBD, there are a lot of concerns about its use, especially in children. Some people say that you can never trust CBD products because vendors are constantly delivering products with inconsistencies regarding the dosage of CBD. Moreover, they also say that right now, there isn’t much information regarding CBD, and we still don’t know how it affects the body in the long run. Nonetheless, it is safe to say that to prove anything; you must provide concrete facts. With so little research around CBD, it’s uncertain at this time if the benefits outweigh the concerns.

Brown-Forman Completes Sale of Sonoma-Cutrer Vineyards

LOUISVILLE, Ky.–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Brown-Forman (NYSE: BFA, BFB) announced today that it completed the sale of Sonoma-Cutrer Vineyards and related brand trademarks to The Duckhorn Portfolio, Inc. (NYSE: NAPA), a premier wine group, on April 30, 2024. In November 2023, Brown-Forman disclosed it had reached an agreement to sell the brand in exchange for an ownership percentage of approximately 21.5% in The Duckhorn Portfolio and $50 million USD.

As part of the agreement, The Duckhorn Portfolio has named two Brown-Forman executives to its Board of Directors, Marshall Farrer, Chief Strategic Growth Officer, and Tim Nall, Chief Global Supply Chain and Technology Officer.

Under the terms of the agreement, the Sonoma-Cutrer brand trademarks, facilities, and six vineyards in two appellations will join The Duckhorn Portfolio’s luxury wine brands.

About Brown-Forman

For more than 150 years, Brown-Forman Corporation has enriched the experience of life by responsibly building fine quality beverage alcohol brands, including Jack Daniel’s Tennessee Whiskey, Jack Daniel’s Ready-to-Drinks, Jack Daniel’s Tennessee Honey, Jack Daniel’s Tennessee Fire, Jack Daniel’s Tennessee Apple, Gentleman Jack, Jack Daniel’s Single Barrel, Woodford Reserve, Old Forester, Coopers’ Craft, The GlenDronach, Benriach, Glenglassaugh, Slane, Herradura, el Jimador, New Mix, Korbel, Chambord, Fords Gin, Gin Mare, and Diplomático Rum. Brown-Forman’s brands are supported by approximately 5,600 employees globally and sold in more than 170 countries worldwide. For more information about the company, please visit

Important Information on Forward-Looking Statements:

This press release contains statements, estimates, and projections that are “forward-looking statements” as defined under U.S. federal securities laws, including statements regarding the Company’s anticipated divestiture of Sonoma Cutrer and investment in The Duckhorn Portfolio, Inc. Words such as “aim,” “anticipate,” “aspire,” “believe,” “can,” “continue,” “could,” “envision,” “estimate,” “expect,” “expectation,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “potential,” “project,” “pursue,” “see,” “seek,” “should,” “will,” “would,” and similar words indicate forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date we make them. Except as required by law, we do not intend to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise. By their nature, forward-looking statements involve risks, uncertainties, and other factors (many beyond our control) that could cause our actual results to differ materially from our historical experience or from our current expectations or projections. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to:

  • Our substantial dependence upon the continued growth of the Jack Daniel’s family of brands
  • Substantial competition from new entrants, consolidations by competitors and retailers, and other competitive activities, such as pricing actions (including price reductions, promotions, discounting, couponing, or free goods), marketing, category expansion, product introductions, or entry or expansion in our geographic markets or distribution networks
  • Route-to-consumer changes that affect the timing of our sales, temporarily disrupt the marketing or sale of our products, or result in higher fixed costs
  • Disruption of our distribution network or inventory fluctuations in our products by distributors, wholesalers, or retailers
  • Changes in consumer preferences, consumption, or purchase patterns – particularly away from larger producers in favor of small distilleries or local producers, or away from brown spirits, our premium products, or spirits generally, and our ability to anticipate or react to them; further legalization of marijuana; bar, restaurant, travel, or other on-premise declines; shifts in demographic or health and wellness trends; or unfavorable consumer reaction to new products, line extensions, package changes, product reformulations, or other product innovation
  • Production facility, aging warehouse, or supply chain disruption
  • Imprecision in supply/demand forecasting
  • Higher costs, lower quality, or unavailability of energy, water, raw materials, product ingredients, or labor
  • Risks associated with acquisitions, dispositions, business partnerships, or investments – such as acquisition integration, termination difficulties or costs, or impairment in recorded value
  • Impact of health epidemics and pandemics, and the risk of the resulting negative economic impacts and related governmental actions
  • Unfavorable global or regional economic conditions and related economic slowdowns or recessions, low consumer confidence, high unemployment, weak credit or capital markets, budget deficits, burdensome government debt, austerity measures, higher interest rates, higher taxes, political instability, higher inflation, deflation, lower returns on pension assets, or lower discount rates for pension obligations
  • Product recalls or other product liability claims, product tampering, contamination, or quality issues
  • Negative publicity related to our company, products, brands, marketing, executive leadership, employees, Board of Directors, family stockholders, operations, business performance, or prospects
  • Failure to attract or retain key executive or employee talent
  • Risks associated with being a U.S.-based company with a global business, including commercial, political, and financial risks; local labor policies and conditions; protectionist trade policies, or economic or trade sanctions, including additional retaliatory tariffs on American whiskeys and the effectiveness of our actions to mitigate the negative impact on our margins, sales, and distributors; compliance with local trade practices and other regulations; terrorism, kidnapping, extortion, or other types of violence; and health pandemics
  • Failure to comply with anti-corruption laws, trade sanctions and restrictions, or similar laws or regulations
  • Fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, particularly a stronger U.S. dollar
  • Changes in laws, regulatory measures, or governmental policies, especially those affecting production, importation, marketing, labeling, pricing, distribution, sale, or consumption of our beverage alcohol products
  • Tax rate changes (including excise, corporate, sales or value-added taxes, property taxes, payroll taxes, import and export duties, and tariffs) or changes in related reserves, changes in tax rules or accounting standards, and the unpredictability and suddenness with which they can occur
  • Decline in the social acceptability of beverage alcohol in significant markets
  • Significant additional labeling or warning requirements or limitations on availability of our beverage alcohol products
  • Counterfeiting and inadequate protection of our intellectual property rights
  • Significant legal disputes and proceedings, or government investigations
  • Cyber breach or failure or corruption of our key information technology systems or those of our suppliers, customers, or direct and indirect business partners, or failure to comply with personal data protection laws
  • Our status as a family “controlled company” under New York Stock Exchange rules, and our dual-class share structure

For further information on these and other risks, please refer to our public filings, including the “Risk Factors” section of our annual report on Form 10-K and quarterly reports on Form 10-Q filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.


Elizabeth Conway


Corporate Communications

Sue Perram

VP, Director

Investor Relations

FAQ: HVAC Selection for Cannabis Cultivation and Processing Facilities


Laura Breit, Founder of Root Engineers, @rootengineers, shares some of the frequently asked questions her teams hears when it comes to HVAC for cannabis operations.

For a cannabis cultivation or processing facility, Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) equipment selection is one of the largest expenses your business will come across – both from an upfront perspective, as well as an operating cost perspective.

The selection of your HVAC system can have a direct impact on three things: your product quality, your bottom line, and the overall sustainability of your business in terms of energy efficiency.

Because HVAC selection has such a direct impact on the success of your operation, it is not a decision that should be taken likely.

As engineers, my team and I have worked on a wide range of projects surrounding HVAC system selection in recent years.

While every operation will have different HVAC needs based on their short and long term goals, here are some of the most commonly asked questions we come across while completing HVAC projects.

Q: What are the most important factors to consider when selecting an HVAC system?

A: The first step is to examine your budget alongside your business plan and your short and long term goals.

Your unique budget and specific goals will dictate what kind of system your engineer will lead you toward.

If you are looking to the future for long-term growth, spending a little more on an energy efficient HVAC system up front can create significant cost savings down the road.

Another important consideration for both you and your designer is your operation’s unique temperature and humidity setpoint requirements, and the allowable swing outside of those setpoints.

As a grower, you likely have your own “special sauce” when it comes to temperature and humidity setpoints, but you also need to clarify how far outside these setpoints you will allow your HVAC system to operate.

If you want to stay in a very tight range, you will probably be best off choosing a system that has a higher first cost, but is more efficient in the long run.

If you can allow for more swing, you may be able to get away with a lower first cost system.

An engineer can help make sure your system is meeting your specific needs in the most efficient way possible.

Q: What are some common mistakes cultivation and processing operations make when selecting an HVAC system?

A: Beware of falling into the pricing or familiarity traps. One of the issues we see as engineers is business operators who choose a system because they are familiar with the brand name or believe they found a good deal.

They may have heard that the system they’ve chosen is the “best,” but it’s not necessarily the “best” for their specific operation. HVAC is not a one-size-fits-all process – there is no HVAC solution that will work for every operation.

By planning ahead and designing a system that is more customized for your facility and your business goals, you can save significant time and money (and headaches) right from the start.

The cannabis industry is still in its infancy when it comes to engineering, and we are constantly trying to make the process as easy to understand as possible.

By far, the biggest mistake that I have encountered is having to backtrack at the inspection stage because an operation didn’t bring in an engineer at the beginning.

Most jurisdictions require the stamp of a professional engineer for permitting and other regulatory stages, and scrambling to bring someone in on the backend can create unnecessary problems and delays.

In one case, our team was brought onto a project that already had an HVAC system installed, and the system didn’t actually meet the energy code for their jurisdiction.

This is an expensive problem to solve at the end of a project.

Q: What impact can HVAC system selection have on product quality?

A: From what our clients have told us, temperature and humidity control have a specific impact on the growth of cannabis plants, which is why HVAC selection is so important to an operation.

Maintaining proper environmental control can impact quality, which is why we try to minimize temperature and humidity swings in a space.

As an example, we had a client bring our team in to troubleshoot a problem with their HVAC system, and we found that the compressors were not operating correctly and creating large variances in temperature and humidity.

After we identified the problem, we were able to work with the team to provide steady temperature and humidity control, creating a more stable environment for the plants.

Making the right decision up front about your HVAC system can be critical to your success.

When you approach this important decision with the right knowledge, you will be in a position to make more educated decisions on how to run your operation efficiently and sustainably.

Author Bio: Laura Breit is the founder and owner of Oregon-based firms Root Engineers and ColeBreit Engineering. She is a professional mechanical engineer specializing in the design of HVAC, plumbing, and process systems for the cannabis industry. @rootengineers


ATS To Acquire Packaging Machine Provider Paxiom

CAMBRIDGE, Ontario–(BUSINESS WIRE)–ATS Corporation (TSX: ATS) (NYSE: ATS) (“ATS” or the “Company”) a leading automation solutions provider, today announced it has entered into a definitive agreement to acquire Paxiom Group (“Paxiom”), a provider of primary, secondary, and end-of-line packaging machines in the food and beverage, cannabis, and pharmaceutical industries.

“With a dynamic product mix and a growing global footprint, Paxiom will be a great addition to ATS,” said Andrew Hider, Chief Executive Officer of ATS Corporation. “As we seek to expand our presence in regulated markets, such as food and beverage and life sciences, the strong reputation and sophisticated offerings that Paxiom brings to market will provide both organic and synergistic opportunities for growth with an accretive margin profile.”

With headquarters in Montreal, Quebec, the group includes its companies WeighPack Systems, EndFlex, Valtara and Kang-Di. With manufacturing facilities in: Montreal, Quebec; Miami, Florida; Schio, Italy and Shanghai, China as well as an integration center and showroom in Las Vegas, NV, Paxiom will join ATS’ Products and Food Technology business. Paxiom has been building leading automated packaging solutions for over 30 years, providing a vast product line that includes precision weigh filling, bagging, wrapping, labelling, conveyors, case forming, robotic case packing and end of line palletizing equipment that will complement ATS’ businesses CFT, Raytec, Marco, IWK, and NCC and allows ATS to offer complete packaging and end-of-line solutions. In its calendar year ended December 31, 2023, Paxiom generated revenues of approximately $67 million and an adjusted EBITDA margin1 above 19%, with the majority of revenues being generated in North America. Paxiom employs approximately 200 people and has a strong customer portfolio representing leading companies in multiple sectors.

“Paxiom’s differentiated solutions in filling, wrapping, sealing, labelling and palletizing across a range of industries will be a strong complement to our existing ATS portfolio,” added Jeremy Patten, President of ATS Products & Food Technology. “As we continue to expand our value proposition to customers across the markets we serve, the addition of Paxiom to ATS is highly complementary and will bring meaningful expansion to how we can support our customers.”

The purchase price represented an EV/EBITDA1 multiple accretive to ATS’ current trading multiple, however, specific financial terms of the transaction were not disclosed. The transaction is expected to close in the third calendar quarter of 2024, subject to customary closing conditions. ATS plans to fund the acquisition with cash and by drawing on its revolving credit facility.

1. Adjusted EBITDA is a non-IFRS measure; adjusted EBITDA margin is a non-IFRS ratio. 

About ATS Corporation

ATS Corporation is an industry-leading automation solutions provider to many of the world’s most successful companies. ATS uses its extensive knowledge base and global capabilities in custom automation, repeat automation, automation products and value-added solutions including pre-automation and after-sales services, to address the sophisticated manufacturing automation systems and service needs of multinational customers in markets such as life sciences, transportation, food & beverage, consumer products, and energy. Founded in 1978, ATS employs over 7,000 people at more than 65 manufacturing facilities and over 85 offices in North America, Europe, Southeast Asia and Oceania. The Company’s common shares are traded on the Toronto Stock Exchange and the NYSE under the symbol ATS. Visit the Company’s website at

Forward-Looking Statements

This press release contains certain statements that may constitute forward-looking information and forward-looking statements within the meaning of applicable Canadian and United States securities laws (“forward-looking statements”). All such statements are made pursuant to the “safe harbour” provisions of Canadian provincial and territorial securities laws and the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements include all statements that are not historical facts regarding possible events, conditions or results of operations that ATS believes, expects or anticipates will or may occur in the future, including, but not limited to: the synergistic opportunities for growth and margin expected from the acquisition; the complement to, or expansion of, ATS’ offering; the benefit to ATS’ customers; the completion of the acquisition of Paxiom; and the manner of funding of the acquisition.

Forward-looking statements are inherently subject to significant known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and other factors that may cause the actual results, performance, or achievements of ATS, or developments in ATS’ business or in its industry, to differ materially from the anticipated results, performance, achievements, or developments expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Important risks, uncertainties, and factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from expectations expressed in the forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, the impact of regional or global conflicts; general market performance including capital market conditions and availability and cost of credit; performance of the markets that ATS serves; industry challenges in securing the supply of labour, materials, and, in certain jurisdictions, energy sources such as natural gas; impact of inflation; interest rate changes; foreign currency and exchange risk; the relative strength of the Canadian dollar; risks related to customer concentration; risks related to a recession, slowdown, and/or sustained downturn in the economy; impact of factors such as increased pricing pressure, increased cost of energy and supplies, and delays in relation thereto, and possible margin compression; the regulatory and tax environment; the emergence of new infectious diseases or any epidemic or pandemic outbreak or resurgence, and collateral consequences thereof, including the disruption of economic activity, volatility in capital and credit markets, and legislative and regulatory responses; the effect of events involving limited liquidity, defaults, non-performance or other adverse developments that affect financial institutions, transaction counterparties, or other companies in the financial services industry generally, or concerns or rumours about any events of these kinds or other similar risks, that have in the past and may in the future lead to market-wide liquidity problems; energy shortages and global prices increases; the consequences of activist initiatives on business performance, results, or share price; the impact of analyst reports on price and trading volume of ATS’ shares; that closing is delayed or prohibited as a result of the inability to complete closing conditions; that the expected synergies are not realized; that the acquisition does not complement or expand ATS’ offering, or benefit customers, as expected; that the transaction is not funded as expected; and other risks and uncertainties detailed from time to time in ATS’ filings with securities regulators, including, without limitation, the risk factors described in ATS’ annual information form for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2024, which are available on the System for Electronic Data Analysis and Retrieval+ (“SEDAR+”) at and on the U.S. Securities Exchange Commission’s Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval System (“EDGAR”) at ATS has attempted to identify important factors that could cause actual results to materially differ from current expectations, however, there may be other factors that cause actual results to differ materially from such expectations.

Forward-looking statements are necessarily based on a number of estimates, factors, and assumptions regarding, among others, management’s current plans, estimates, projections, beliefs and opinions, the future performance and results of the Company’s business and operations; the ability of ATS to execute on its business objectives; and general economic and political conditions, and global events, including any epidemic or pandemic outbreak or resurgence.

Forward-looking statements included in this press release are only provided to understand management’s current expectations relating to future periods and, as such, are not appropriate for any other purpose. Although ATS believes that the expectations reflected in such forward-looking statements are reasonable, such statements involve risks and uncertainties, and ATS cautions you not to place undue reliance upon any such forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date they are made. ATS does not undertake any obligation to update forward-looking statements contained herein other than as required by law.

Non-IFRS and Other Financial Measures

Throughout this press release management refers to certain non-IFRS measures, and non-IFRS ratios. The term “adjusted EBITDA” is a non-IFRS measure, and “adjusted EBITDA margin” is a non-IFRS ratio, both of which do not have any standardized meaning prescribed within International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”) and therefore may not be comparable to similar measures presented by other companies. Such measures should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for measures of performance prepared in accordance with IFRS. Adjusted EBITDA is defined as net income excluding income tax expense, net finance costs, depreciation and amortization before items excluded from management’s internal analysis of operating results, such as amortization expense of acquisition-related intangible assets, acquisition-related transaction and integration costs, restructuring charges, the mark-to-market adjustment on stock-based compensation and certain other adjustments which would be non-recurring in nature (“adjustment items”). Adjusted EBITDA margin is an expression of the Company’s adjusted EBITDA as a percentage of revenues. Adjusted EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA margin are used by the Company to evaluate the performance of its operations. Management believes that adjusted EBITDA is an important indicator of the Company’s ability to generate operating cash flows to fund continued investment in its operations. The adjustment items used by management to arrive at these metrics are not considered to be indicative of the business’ ongoing operating performance. Management believes that ATS shareholders and potential investors in ATS use these additional IFRS measures and non-IFRS financial measures in making investment decisions and measuring operational results.


For more information:
David Galison

Head of Investor Relations

ATS Corporation

730 Fountain Street North

Cambridge, ON, N3H 4R7

(519) 653-6500

For general media inquiries:
Matthew Robinson

Director, Corporate Communications

ATS Corporation

730 Fountain Street North

Cambridge, ON, N3H 4R7

(519) 653-6500